Journal of Modern Languages <p><strong>The Journal of Modern Languages</strong><span class="apple-converted-space"> <strong>(JML)</strong><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>is an international peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the Faculty of Languages and Linguistics at Universiti Malaya in Malaysia. It </span>is devoted to publishing research reports and discussions that represent an important contribution to current understandings of central issues in the broad field of modern language studies. Founded in 1983, the Journal primarily published papers annually that describe scientific studies of language use, processing and development. In 2019, JML began to welcome the submission of manuscripts in the form of review papers and meta-analyses, and from 2020, the Journal has started publishing two issues per year.</p> <p><strong>JML</strong> aims to report state-of-the-art research and to provide a forum for both established experts and emerging talent. The Journal encourages interdisciplinary approaches to language research and acts as a reference for all those interested in modern language studies.<br /><br /></p> <p><strong>Focus and Scope:</strong> JML welcomes papers in (but not restricted to):</p> <ul> <li class="show">Applied Linguistics</li> <li class="show">Corpus Linguistics</li> <li class="show">Descriptive Linguistics</li> <li class="show">Discourse Studies</li> <li class="show">Psycholinguistics</li> <li class="show">Sociolinguistics</li> <li class="show">Translation and Interpretation</li> </ul> <p><strong>Peer-review Policy: </strong>Manuscripts submitted to JML first undergo editorial screening, followed by peer review by at least two anonymous reviewers. As regards the originality and similarity index, manuscripts may be checked via the Turnitin software. However, in our experience, there have been cases of plagiarism in which the software has failed to detect. In these cases, if the editorial boad and/or reviewers doubt the originality of any part(s) of the work under review, the Editor-in-Chief's decision is final.</p> <p><strong>Third-Party Content in Open Access papers</strong><br />If you are considering to publish your paper with us but it contains material for which you do not have Open Access re-use permissions, please state this clearly by supplying the following credit line alongside the material:<br />Title of content; author; original publication; year of original publication; by permission of [rights holder].<br />This image/content is not covered by the terms of the Creative Commons licence of this publication. For permission to reuse, please contact the rights holder.</p> <p>JML welcomes article submissions and charges <strong>no publication fee</strong>.</p> <p><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Print ISSN: 1675-526X<br />Online ISSN: 2462-1986<br /></span></strong><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Publisher: University of Malaya<br /></span></strong><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Publication type: Online<br /></span></strong><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Indexing:</span></strong></p> <p><strong><img src="" alt="" width="162" height="59" /></strong><strong> </strong><strong><img src="" alt="" /></strong></p> en-US (Journal of Modern Languages) (Journal of Modern Languages) Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0800 OJS 60 Editorial <p>Welcome to the December 2021 issue, which concludes Volume 31. We have a full issue for you again, comprising six articles spanning applied and theoretical explorations of language.</p> <p>This issue contains contributions from a variety of teaching and research contexts ranging from the classroom to the Instagram ecology. The topics explored range from the need to expand students’ choices and salient aspects of bilingual dictionaries of Islamic finance and economy to strategies employed by politicians to respond to interviewers’ face-threatening questions, and the phonological distribution of nasalized consonants and nasalized vowels in the Mbaise dialect of Igbo. The articles focus on the practical and theoretical relevance of the topics that the authors examined. Together they reflect current issues confronting language teachers and researchers in applied and theoretical linguistics, and the ways these issues can be explored and described.</p> <p>This concluding issue of 2021 has special significance for me as it marks the final issue in my role as Editor-in-Chief. I have decided to step down to focus on other commitments. I must note that I have been privileged to be able to witness the growth of the Journal over the past few years, and am particularly pleased to see that we now receive over twice as many submissions per year as we had when I first took up the role in 2019. As readers of this Journal have noticed, starting from 2020, we have also started to publish two issues per year. This is not just a matter of growth in terms of quantity of production; the quality of the articles published can also be seen from the range of topics addressed and the geographical distribution of our authors. Almost half of the articles of each issue published came from authors outside Malaysia, and they were received from such countries as India, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Japan, Nigeria, Singapore, Spain, the Philippines and the UK.</p> <p>All this was made possible with the strong support and positive energy of the entire editorial team and our International Advisory Board. I would like to take this opportunity to record my heartfelt thanks to all the members of the Editorial Board and Advisory Board for their contributions during this period of three meaningful years with me:</p> <p><strong>Associate Editor</strong><br>Chew Shin Yi (Universiti Malaya, Malaysia)<strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Editorial&nbsp;Board<br></strong>Mohd Ridwan Abdul Wahid (Universiti Malaya, Malaysia)<br>Ang Pei Soo (Universiti Malaya, Malaysia)<br>Thanalachime Perumal&nbsp;(Universiti Malaya, Malaysia)<br>Stefanie Pillai (Universiti Malaya, Malaysia)<br>Hang Su (Sichuan International Studies University, China)<br>Benet Vincent (Coventry University, United Kingdom)<br>Toshiko Yamaguchi (Universiti Malaya, Malaysia)<br>Lee Kok Yueh (Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Brunei Darussalam)<br>Azlin Zaiti Zainal (Universiti Malaya, Malaysia)</p> <p><strong>International Advisory Board<br></strong>Shirley Dita (De La Salle University, Philippines)<br>Richard Fitzgerald (University of Macau, China)<br>Stephen Hall (Sunway University, Malaysia)<br>Jan Hardman (University of York, United Kingdom)<br>Michelle M. Lazar (National University of Singapore, Singapore)<br>Jason Miin-Hwa Lim (Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Malaysia)<br>Jonathan Newton (Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand)<br>Mario&nbsp;Pinharanda Nunes (University of Macau, China)<br>Dennis Tay (The Hong Kong Polytechnic University)</p> <p>My special thanks also go to all the dedicated reviewers, contributors and readers of this Journal.</p> <p>I look forward to watching the&nbsp;Journal continue to grow in the capable hands of Dr Chew Shin Yi, the Editor-in-Chief for the Journal starting 2022. Shin Yi has worked very closely with me for the past three years, and I am most grateful to have her strongest support in managing this Journal together, particularly during this challenging period of COVID-19.</p> <p>All of us involved in the publication of this Journal wish you, our readers and families, good health and unlimited blessings.</p> <p>Chau Meng Huat<br>For the editorial team</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Meng Huat Chau Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Modern Languages Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0800 Expanding Students’ Choices in Language Education <p>Many teachers seem interested in their classes being more student-centered. Students making more choices about their own learning forms a key aspect of student-centered learning, as well as life-long learning. This article offers ideas for ways to provide students with more choices in their learning and suggests ways to encourage students to make choices when given opportunities to do so. These ideas for increasing student choice include extensive reading, cooperative learning, multiple intelligences, service learning, thinking questions, and use of the internet and other IT affordances. Student choice fits with an overall paradigm shift toward democratizing society, and it also fits with greater choice for teachers. Theoretical underpinnings of student choice include social cognitivism, social constructivism, humanistic psychology, self-directed learning, and social interdependence theory.</p> George Jacobs, Willy Renandya Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Modern Languages Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0800 Implementing task-based teacher training: Narratives from language classrooms <p>This paper aims to document the impact of task-based teacher training on the classroom teaching of two native-speaker English Teaching Assistants (ETAs). The data are drawn from a 30-hour teacher training course offered to the ETAs who taught in two different government schools in Hyderabad, India, as part of the United States India Education Foundation’s Fulbright Fellowship Programme. The training offered to the ETAs consisted of eight modules:&nbsp; teaching vocabulary and grammar, developing listening, speaking, reading and writing and classroom management and lesson planning. Training was offered through tasks, responses to prompts, and case studies. It also included analysis of critical moments that emerged from the everyday teaching of the ETAs. Constructs such as teacher decision-making (Borg, 2006), critical reflection (East, 2014) and pre-service teacher mentoring (Gardiner 2017) have been used to build the theoretical support for the study. A Challenge-Input-Implementation (CII) model is developed to interpret and analyze the data. The data are gathered from three tools: a) reflective journals of ETAs which recorded pertinent issues that emerged from their everyday teaching and possible solutions to these; b) trainer’s field notes that identified critical areas from lesson observation and post-observation conferences; and c) cognitive information sheet which documents ETAs perceptions of how their learning from the training impacted their teaching and what they would like to explore further in their future teaching careers. Findings revealed areas where trainees needed more support (e.g., class control), as well as the strengths that they have developed in instruction delivery (e.g., the ability to make the class interactive).</p> K. Padmini Shankar Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Modern Languages Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0800 Post-Pandemic Indonesian Tourism Promotion in Instagram: Multimodal Discourse Analysis <p>Tourism is one of the most significant sectors affected by the covid-19 pandemic. It has lost billions of dollars due to hotels, restaurants, and visit cancellation. The Indonesian Ministry of Tourism and Creative Economy uses social media to arouse people’s optimism to visit Indonesia in the post-pandemic era. One of the media used to promote tourism is through Instagram, which includes both visual and linguistic features in its uploads. By taking the data during October-November 2020 from Instagram account, this paper utilized Kress &amp; Leeuwen’s multimodal discourse analysis model, particularly the interactive meanings of pictures through contact, distance, and point of view. This paper also analyzed the mood structures and transitivity patterns in the captions, including the phrase like “post-pandemic trip” to strengthen the analysis. It figured out that Instagram posts comprise Indonesian nature, cultural heritage, and traditional villages in declarative mood functioning as “offer”. This paper concluded that visual features are as pivotal as linguistic features to promote Indonesian tourism in the post-pandemic era.</p> Arina Isti'anah, Shafira Rahmasari, Stefanny Lauwren Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Modern Languages Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0800 Non-Replies in Interviews with Iranian Politicians <p>Iran has been at the centre of international controversies since 1979 when the Islamic Republic of Iran was established. The controversial issues that Iran is associated with include its involvement in nuclear programme and the violation of human rights in Iran. Iranian politicians are often criticised for the Iranian government’s non-conformity with Human Rights Council and International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). In this study we examine what strategies or non-replies Iranian politicians employ to respond to interviewers’ face-threatening questions. The data consist of thirty political interviews conducted from 2001 to 2015 with a total of twelve hours of talk involving journalists working for western broadcasting companies and Iranian politicians collected from YouTube packaged for public consumption. It was explored that Iranian politicians employed eight kinds of superordinate non-replies to avoid answering the interviewers’ face-threatening questions to save, protect or enhance their face. The findings of this study can shed light on the avoidance strategies of Iranian politicians.</p> <p> </p> Masoumeh Bahman, Veronica Lowe Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Modern Languages Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0800 A Brief Comparative Analysis of Two Bilingual Dictionaries of Islamic Finance and Economy <p>With the growth of Islamic banking and new research into Islamic economy, the need to investigate related Islamic terms in these fields has become very important for concerned bodies. To date, there has not been adequate research to shed light on bilingual dictionaries on Islamic finance and economy. Two bilingual dictionaries (Arabic –English) that have a substantial number of entries on Islamic finance and economy terms (IFETs) are <em>Mu'jam Lughat Al Fuqahā'</em> (‘Dictionary of Islamic Legal Terminology’) (1988) and <em>ISRA Compendium for Islamic Finance Terms</em> (2010). The current paper aims to provide a brief comparative analysis of some salient aspects with regard to the introductory matter, main content and appendixes of these two specialized, bilingual dictionaries. It also attempts to investigate whether a certain set of randomly selected IFETs are included in the two selected dictionaries to generally gauge the extent of the semantic content of these dictionaries. For those involved in work related to Islamic finance and economy like translators, researchers, students and other professionals in the field, the analysis here will bring to awareness the extent of the usefulness of these two dictionaries by highlighting their merits and demerits. The study concludes by making recommendations for improvements that can be made to future bilingual dictionary publications dealing with IFETs.</p> Antar Fuad Ali, Krishnavanie Shunmugam, Abdulmajid Obaid Hasan Saleh Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Modern Languages Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0800 An Optimality-Theoretic Study of Nasalization in Mbaise <p>Within the ambit of Optimality Theory, this paper examined the phonological distribution of nasalized consonants and nasalized vowels in the Mbaise dialect of Igbo (spoken in Nigeria) with a view to identifying the relevant constraint hierarchies controlling their surface realization. Using the West African Linguistic Society Questionnaire and a researcher-designed wordlist, the data were obtained via structured oral interview from two competent native speakers of the dialect, and were analyzed using a descriptive approach grounded on the chosen theoretical framework. Arising from the analysis were the following findings: Mbaise operates two systems of nasal specification ‒ the contrastive type affecting consonants and the context-induced type affecting vowels; nasalized consonants are phonemic while nasalized vowels are allophonic; the nasalized consonants are largely restricted to intervocalic position while the nasalized vowels appear after tautosyllabic nasal(ized) consonants. It was argued that the surface realization of the nasalized consonants is controlled by IDENT-CONS/NAS whereas that of the nasalized vowels is controlled by *NV<sub>[-nasal]</sub>. Despite the difference in their phonological distribution and functional status, Mbaise nasalized consonants and nasalized vowels have a structural relationship within the syllable in which they occur. Therefore, it was concluded that their well-formedness is governed by a single hierarchy: IDENT-CONS/NAS, *NV<sub>[-nasal]</sub> &gt;&gt; *FRIC/NAS, *LIQ/NAS &gt;&gt; *CONS/NAS, *V/NAS &gt;&gt; IDENT-IO(nasal).</p> Mayowa Emmanuel Oyinloye, Chinedu Nwadinobi Anyanwu Copyright (c) 2021 Journal of Modern Languages Thu, 31 Dec 2020 00:00:00 +0800