Journal of Modern Languages 2022-10-17T13:55:44+08:00 Journal of Modern Languages Open Journal Systems <p><strong>The Journal of Modern Languages</strong><span class="apple-converted-space"> <strong>(JML)</strong><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>is an international peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the Faculty of Languages and Linguistics at Universiti Malaya in Malaysia. It </span>is devoted to publishing research reports and discussions that represent an important contribution to current understandings of central issues in the broad field of modern language studies. Founded in 1983, the Journal primarily published papers annually that describe scientific studies of language use, processing and development. In 2019, JML began to welcome the submission of manuscripts in the form of review papers and meta-analyses, and from 2020, the Journal has started publishing two issues per year, in July and December.</p> <p><strong>JML</strong> aims to report state-of-the-art research and to provide a forum for both established experts and emerging talent. The Journal encourages interdisciplinary approaches to language research and acts as a reference for all those interested in modern language studies.<br /><br /></p> <p><strong>Focus and Scope:</strong> JML welcomes papers in (but not restricted to):</p> <ul> <li class="show">Applied Linguistics (language learning &amp; development)</li> <li class="show">Corpus Linguistics</li> <li class="show">Descriptive Linguistics</li> <li class="show">Discourse Studies</li> <li class="show">Psycholinguistics</li> <li class="show">Sociolinguistics</li> <li class="show">Translation and Interpretation</li> </ul> <p><strong>Peer-review Policy: </strong>Manuscripts submitted to JML first undergo editorial screening, followed by peer review by at least two anonymous reviewers. As regards the originality and similarity index, manuscripts will be checked via Turnitin software. If plagiarism is detected, the manuscript will not be considered for publication. </p> <p><strong>Third-Party Content in Open Access papers</strong><br />If you are considering to publish your paper with us but it contains material for which you do not have Open Access re-use permissions, please state this clearly by supplying the following credit line alongside the material:<br />Title of content; author; original publication; year of original publication; by permission of [rights holder].<br />This image/content is not covered by the terms of the Creative Commons licence of this publication. For permission to reuse, please contact the rights holder.</p> <p>JML welcomes article submissions and charges <strong>no publication fee</strong>.</p> <p><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Print ISSN: 1675-526X <br />Online ISSN: 2462-1986<br /></span></strong><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Publisher: University of Malaya<br /></span></strong><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Publication type: Online<br /></span></strong><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Indexing:</span></strong></p> <p><strong><img src="" alt="" width="195" height="71" /></strong><strong> </strong><strong><img src="" alt="" /></strong></p> Editorial 2022-10-17T13:55:44+08:00 Shin Yi Chew <p>In this first issue of 2022, Journal of Modern Languages (JML) is pleased to share six interesting articles which are of relevance to the field of languages and linguistics.</p> <p>The first article of Volume 32, <a href=""><em>Department Store Surveys as a Methodology in the Study of Linguistic Variation</em></a> by Shangxin Zheng and Xiaomei Wang, evaluates the use of Department Store Surveys (DSS) as an effective sociolinguistic tool to study linguistic variation in a multilingual society. Then, the next article by Vivian Chiew and Cecilia Cheong talks about the <a href=""><em>socio-cognitive and professional practice perspectives on chairperson statements</em></a>. The findings of their study do not only illuminate the importance of professional discourse but also highlight pedagogical implications for English for Professional Communication (EPC) programmes.</p> <p>In this issue, we have also included an article that concern minority languages, a major area of interest for many researchers. In the article <a href=""><em>Maimani Language and Lawati Language: Two Sides of the Same Coin?</em></a>, Said Humaid Al Jahdhami shares with us the resemblance between two minority languages which are Maimani Language and Lawati language. The other two articles focus on translation. In the article <a href=""><em>Evaluating the Curriculum for M.A. English Translation in Iran: Is the Curriculum Effective for Students?</em></a>, Aynaz Samir evaluates the effectiveness of the English translation programme in Iran by investigating 341 university students’ perspectives. Insights for curriculum reform in the area of English translation are provided. The following article <a href=""><em>The Art of Paper Cutting: Strategies and Challenges in Chinese to English Subtitle Translation of Cultural Items</em></a> by William Chai, Hui Yi Ong, Mansour Amini and Latha Ravindran highlights the technical, cultural and linguistic challenges faced in translating culture-specific items. Some of the proposed strategies in dealing with the translation of culture-specific terms are omission, equivalence, adaptation and direct transfer. Last but not least, Abbas Pazireh, Nilofar Hessamodini and Zohre Jaferi reported the findings of their quantitative study in the article <a href=""><em>Iranian EFL Learners’ Perceptions towards Demotivation in Learning English</em></a>. In their study, 300 Iranian high school students’ perceptions of demotivation in learning English were gathered and factors such as teachers, textbooks, classroom conditions were identified.</p> <p>We hope that these articles published by JML are insightful to you and that you would share them with your friends and colleagues. For your easy reference, a list of featured articles published in the last five years is attached in the Appendix.</p> 2022-07-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages Department Store Surveys as a Methodology in the Study of Linguistic Variation 2021-09-12T18:58:26+08:00 Shangxin Zheng Xiaomei Wang <p>This article provides an overall review on the methodology of Department Store Surveys (DSS), which refers to sociolinguistic surveys taking place in department stores in urban speech communities accompanied with unobtrusive observation techniques. DSS originated in Labov’s pioneering study on the social stratification of (r) in New York City department stores, and has been applied to various speech communities thereafter. One of the most recent studies, extending DSS by adding another interviewer with a different identity, is discussed in particular. It is proposed that DSS allows us to study linguistic variation in two equally effective ways. At the micro-level, it offers insights into the structuring of a speech community with reference to linguistic variables; also, it informs our understanding of macro-level language use in public settings in a multilingual society. Finally, the strengths and limitations of DSS are evaluated in terms of data collection in urban speech communities. </p> 2022-07-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages Socio-cognitive and Professional Practice Perspectives on Chairperson Statements 2022-01-13T16:15:47+08:00 Vivian Chiew Ling Yee Cecilia Yin Mei Cheong <p>The study establishes the Malaysian chairperson statements from the socio-cognitive and professional practice perspectives. It identifies the move structure of 53 chairperson statements and metadiscourse strategies based on questionnaire and interview responses collected from 39 investors and 3 professional members. Three informational moves are used to assist investment decisions while seven non-informational moves are intended to build good image and good will, and to ensure compliance to requirements. <em>Self-mentions</em>, <em>attitude markers</em>, <em>frame markers</em> and <em>transitions</em> are also used to affectively realise the promotional and interpersonal moves. The chairperson statements are interdiscursively informational, promotional, and public relational. This research highlights pedagogy implications for English for Professional Communication (EPC) programmes, and recommendations for future studies.</p> 2022-10-11T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages Maimani Language and Lawati Language: Two Sides of the Same Coin? 2022-05-17T10:53:40+08:00 Said Humaid Al Jahdhami <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The concomitance of several minority languages side by side with Arabic has played a significant role in enriching Oman’s linguistic diversity. Associated largely with the home domain, the vitality of these languages is highly dependent on the attention availed by their own native speakers to their usage and inter-generational transmission. The existence of some of these languages is not commonly recognised, nor is their status failsafe. Owing to a certain degree of lexical resemblance amongst these languages, inter alia, some of them are often viewed and presented as dialects of one another rather than distinct languages of their own, a fact that has fed into unmeant obliviousness of their existence. Unbeknownst to many people even in Oman, Maimani is one unique case that merits exploration. Due to some unsubstantiated linguistic and ethnic considerations, Maimani is often mistakenly viewed as a dialect diverging from Baluchi, an Indo-Iranian language spoken in Oman as well as other homeland countries such as Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan. This paper, to that effect, is an attempt to cast some light on this understudied language and to bring it some due notice. A closer look at a sample of its lexicon based on the Swadesh one hundred word list reveals that Maimani has a slight portion of shared lexical items with Baluchi and a minimal degree of mutual intelligibility. Contrary to expectation, Maimani has plenty of common lexical items with Lawati, another nearby member of the Indo-Iranian language family that is not commonly linked to Maimani. The findings show that Maimani lexical resemblance and mutual intelligibility to Lawati is greatly significant that they appear to be dichotomous varieties branching from the same language.</span></p> 2022-07-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages Evaluating the Curriculum for M.A. English Translation in Iran: Is the Curriculum Effective for Students? 2021-12-14T22:28:09+08:00 Aynaz Samir <p>The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the current curriculum for M.A. English translation in Iranian universities regarding the students’ perspectives to find its deficiencies and to propose some recommendations to make the curriculum compatible with students’ needs. The study was done based on a quantitative research design using a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was administrated to 341 M.A. and Ph.D. translation students in Iran. The data from the questionnaire were analyzed in descriptive statistics and an independent samples t-test. The results revealed that the current curriculum was moderately effective in providing the students with the necessary translation competencies. The results indicated some courses including <em>Translation Workshop</em>, and <em>Theories of Translation</em> were effective. Whereas, some courses such as <em>Literary Criticism</em>, and <em>Philosophy of Education</em> were not effective enough to improve students’ theoretical knowledge and practical translation competencies. Hence, modifications of the contents or curriculum are needed. To improve the curriculum, the top three practical courses should be added to the curriculum, and they include <em>Translation of Technical Texts</em>, <em>Interpretation Workshop</em>, and <em>Bilingual Editing Skills</em>. Additionally, the results of the independent samples <em>t</em>-test showed that M.A students agreed more than Ph.D. students that courses such as <em>Persian Writing</em>, <em>English Writing</em>, and <em>Sight Translation</em> should be added to the M.A. translation curriculum. Overall, the findings provide insights to the curriculum reform which is needed in the area of English translation.</p> 2022-07-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages The Art of Paper Cutting: Strategies and Challenges in Chinese to English Subtitle Translation of Cultural Items 2022-07-05T20:44:08+08:00 William Chai Hui Yi Ong Mansour Amini Latha Ravindran <p>Culture is a way of life and embodiment of civilizations that is expressed through a language. The transfer of culture is a significant aspect of audio-visual translation as translators deal with more than just the written texts on surface level. Translating culture-specific items on paper cutting is an intercultural communication. However, translating cultural items in subtitling could cause challenges and problems for translators during the translation process. In this qualitative study, the translation strategies and challenges were explored in the subtitling of a Chinese cultural documentary on the art of papercutting titled <em>The Life of Paper-cutting </em>(剪紙人生; Jiǎn zhǐ rén shēng) retrieved from YouTube. The original video was subtitled to identify the challenges in subtitling. The strategies and challenges were first identified and then the process was described. It was found that the most appropriate translation strategies were omission, direct transfer, equivalence, and adaptation. The analysis revealed that the challenges were mainly technical, cultural, and linguistic. The findings can be used as a guide to utilise the translation strategies effectively in subtitling translations of similar audio-visual products to tackle the challenges faced in the Chinese to English translation of culture-specific items.</p> 2022-07-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages Iranian EFL Learners’ Perceptions towards Demotivation in Learning English 2021-08-11T11:37:17+08:00 Abbas Paziresh Nilofar Hessamodini Zohre Jafari <p>Demotivation in learning English has always been challenging for teachers, parents and researchers and they sought ways to discover its roots and solve it. One important source of solutions to learners’ demotivation is their own perceptions. However, such a rich resource of information on demotivation has received little attention. Therefore, inspired by such a gap, the present study investigated Iranian high school EFL students’ perceptions of demotivation in learning English. Following quantitative survey research, a questionnaire was designed both inspired by demotivation questionnaires of Sakai and Kikuchi (2009) and Falout and Maruyama (2004) and teachers’ focus group on attitudes. It was created based on the Likert Scale and composed of three phases including 54 statements about teachers, textbooks and classroom conditions. The questionnaire was sent to 300 volunteer high school students selected from a random list of public and private high schools across the country. After completion, the questionnaire data were controlled and entered into SPSS. Then, descriptive statistics were computed and <em>Pearson</em><em> correlation</em> and <em>Runs Test</em> were carried out. However, analysis of the learners’ perceptions revealed that students attributed their demotivation to teachers, classroom conditions, and textbooks respectively. It was found that in Iran, teachers were deemed not qualified enough to motivate students. Apart from that, the classroom conditions and English textbooks were in poor conditions and did not manage to attract and motivate learners.</p> 2022-07-31T00:00:00+08:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages