Journal of Modern Languages <p><strong>The Journal of Modern Languages</strong><span class="apple-converted-space"> <strong>(JML)</strong><span class="apple-converted-space"> </span>is an international peer-reviewed, open access journal published by the Faculty of Languages and Linguistics at Universiti Malaya in Malaysia. It </span>is devoted to publishing research reports and discussions that represent an important contribution to current understandings of central issues in the broad field of modern language studies. Founded in 1983, the Journal primarily published papers annually that describe scientific studies of language use, processing and development. In 2019, JML began to welcome the submission of manuscripts in the form of review papers and meta-analyses, and from 2020, the Journal has started publishing two issues per year.</p> <p><strong>JML</strong> aims to report state-of-the-art research and to provide a forum for both established experts and emerging talent. The Journal encourages interdisciplinary approaches to language research and acts as a reference for all those interested in modern language studies.<br /><br /></p> <p><strong>Focus and Scope:</strong> JML welcomes papers in (but not restricted to):</p> <ul> <li class="show">Applied Linguistics</li> <li class="show">Corpus Linguistics</li> <li class="show">Descriptive Linguistics</li> <li class="show">Discourse Studies</li> <li class="show">Psycholinguistics</li> <li class="show">Sociolinguistics</li> <li class="show">Translation and Interpretation</li> </ul> <p><strong>Peer-review Policy: </strong>Manuscripts submitted to JML first undergo editorial screening, followed by peer review by at least two anonymous reviewers. As regards the originality and similarity index, manuscripts may be checked via the Turnitin software. However, in our experience, there have been cases of plagiarism in which the software has failed to detect. In these cases, if the editorial boad and/or reviewers doubt the originality of any part(s) of the work under review, the Editor-in-Chief's decision is final.</p> <p><strong>Third-Party Content in Open Access papers</strong><br />If you are considering to publish your paper with us but it contains material for which you do not have Open Access re-use permissions, please state this clearly by supplying the following credit line alongside the material:<br />Title of content; author; original publication; year of original publication; by permission of [rights holder].<br />This image/content is not covered by the terms of the Creative Commons licence of this publication. For permission to reuse, please contact the rights holder.</p> <p>JML welcomes article submissions and charges <strong>no publication fee</strong>.</p> <p><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Print ISSN: 1675-526X<br />Online ISSN: 2462-1986<br /></span></strong><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Publisher: University of Malaya<br /></span></strong><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Publication type: Online<br /></span></strong><strong><span class="apple-converted-space">Indexing:</span></strong></p> <p><strong><img src="" alt="" width="195" height="71" /></strong><strong> </strong><strong><img src="" alt="" /></strong></p> University of Malaya Press en-US Journal of Modern Languages 1675-526X Department Store Surveys as a Methodology in the Study of Linguistic Variation <p>This article provides an overall review on the methodology of Department Store Surveys (DSS), which refers to sociolinguistic surveys taking place in department stores in urban speech communities accompanied with unobtrusive observation techniques. DSS originated in Labov’s pioneering study on the social stratification of (r) in New York City department stores, and has been applied to various speech communities thereafter. One of the most recent studies, extending DSS by adding another interviewer with a different identity, is discussed in particular. It is proposed that DSS allows us to study linguistic variation in two equally effective ways. At the micro-level, it offers insights into the structuring of a speech community with reference to linguistic variables; also, it informs our understanding of macro-level language use in public settings in a multilingual society. Finally, the strengths and limitations of DSS are evaluated in terms of data collection in urban speech communities. </p> Shangxin Zheng Xiaomei Wang Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 32 1 1 18 10.22452/jml.vol32no1.1 Socio-cognitive and Professional Practice Perspectives on Chairperson Statements <p>The study establishes the Malaysian chairperson statements from the socio-cognitive and professional practice perspectives. It identifies the move structure of 53 chairperson statements and metadiscourse strategies based on questionnaire and interview responses collected from 39 investors and 3 professional members. Three informational moves are used to assist investment decisions while seven non-informational moves are intended to build good image and good will, and to ensure compliance to requirements. <em>Self-mentions</em>, <em>attitude markers</em>, <em>frame markers</em> and <em>transitions</em> are also used to affectively realise the promotional and interpersonal moves. The chairperson statements are interdiscursively informational, promotional, and public relational. This research highlights pedagogy implications for English for Professional Communication (EPC) programmes, and recommendations for future studies.</p> Vivian Chiew Ling Yee Cecilia Yin Mei Cheong Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 32 1 19 36 10.22452/jml.vol32no1.2 Maimani Language and Lawati Language: Two Sides of the Same Coin? <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">The concomitance of several minority languages side by side with Arabic has played a significant role in enriching Oman’s linguistic diversity. Associated largely with the home domain, the vitality of these languages is highly dependent on the attention availed by their own native speakers to their usage and inter-generational transmission. The existence of some of these languages is not commonly recognised, nor is their status failsafe. Owing to a certain degree of lexical resemblance amongst these languages, inter alia, some of them are often viewed and presented as dialects of one another rather than distinct languages of their own, a fact that has fed into unmeant obliviousness of their existence. Unbeknownst to many people even in Oman, Maimani is one unique case that merits exploration. Due to some unsubstantiated linguistic and ethnic considerations, Maimani is often mistakenly viewed as a dialect diverging from Baluchi, an Indo-Iranian language spoken in Oman as well as other homeland countries such as Pakistan, Iran, and Afghanistan. This paper, to that effect, is an attempt to cast some light on this understudied language and to bring it some due notice. A closer look at a sample of its lexicon based on the Swadesh one hundred word list reveals that Maimani has a slight portion of shared lexical items with Baluchi and a minimal degree of mutual intelligibility. Contrary to expectation, Maimani has plenty of common lexical items with Lawati, another nearby member of the Indo-Iranian language family that is not commonly linked to Maimani. The findings show that Maimani lexical resemblance and mutual intelligibility to Lawati is greatly significant that they appear to be dichotomous varieties branching from the same language.</span></p> Said Humaid Al Jahdhami Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 32 1 37 57 10.22452/jml.vol32no1.3 Evaluating the Curriculum for M.A. English Translation in Iran: Is the Curriculum Effective for Students? <p>The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the current curriculum for M.A. English translation in Iranian universities regarding the students’ perspectives to find its deficiencies and to propose some recommendations to make the curriculum compatible with students’ needs. The study was done based on a quantitative research design using a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was administrated to 341 M.A. and Ph.D. translation students in Iran. The data from the questionnaire were analyzed in descriptive statistics and an independent samples t-test. The results revealed that the current curriculum was moderately effective in providing the students with the necessary translation competencies. The results indicated some courses including <em>Translation Workshop</em>, and <em>Theories of Translation</em> were effective. Whereas, some courses such as <em>Literary Criticism</em>, and <em>Philosophy of Education</em> were not effective enough to improve students’ theoretical knowledge and practical translation competencies. Hence, modifications of the contents or curriculum are needed. To improve the curriculum, the top three practical courses should be added to the curriculum, and they include <em>Translation of Technical Texts</em>, <em>Interpretation Workshop</em>, and <em>Bilingual Editing Skills</em>. Additionally, the results of the independent samples <em>t</em>-test showed that M.A students agreed more than Ph.D. students that courses such as <em>Persian Writing</em>, <em>English Writing</em>, and <em>Sight Translation</em> should be added to the M.A. translation curriculum. Overall, the findings provide insights to the curriculum reform which is needed in the area of English translation.</p> Aynaz Samir Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 32 1 58 83 10.22452/jml.vol32no1.4 The Art of Paper Cutting: Strategies and Challenges in Chinese to English Subtitle Translation of Cultural Items <p>Culture is a way of life and embodiment of civilizations that is expressed through a language. The transfer of culture is a significant aspect of audio-visual translation as translators deal with more than just the written texts on surface level. Translating culture-specific items on paper cutting is an intercultural communication. However, translating cultural items in subtitling could cause challenges and problems for translators during the translation process. In this qualitative study, the translation strategies and challenges were explored in the subtitling of a Chinese cultural documentary on the art of papercutting titled <em>The Life of Paper-cutting </em>(剪紙人生; Jiǎn zhǐ rén shēng) retrieved from YouTube. The original video was subtitled to identify the challenges in subtitling. The strategies and challenges were first identified and then the process was described. It was found that the most appropriate translation strategies were omission, direct transfer, equivalence, and adaptation. The analysis revealed that the challenges were mainly technical, cultural, and linguistic. The findings can be used as a guide to utilise the translation strategies effectively in subtitling translations of similar audio-visual products to tackle the challenges faced in the Chinese to English translation of culture-specific items.</p> William Chai Hui Yi Ong Mansour Amini Latha Ravindran Copyright (c) 2022 Journal of Modern Languages 2022-07-31 2022-07-31 32 1 84 103 10.22452/jml.vol32no1.5